How Electric Cars Work

According International Standard (ISO 8713: 2002) is known in terms of Electrical Drives Electric road vehicles are in the United States developed into two (2) types, including; Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEV) and Low Emission Vehicles (LEV). Electric cars are categorized into Zero Emission Vehicles is a Car Battery (Battery Operate) and car fuel cell. While that is categorized into LEV propulsion system is a car that combines the conventional engine with an electric motor (automobile Hibrida).

A very important part on electric cars there are five sections:

1). Electric motor.

2). Battery (ACCU).

3). Charger (Tool recharging electrical energy in ACCU).

4). Controller

5). Energy Management (EMS)

Work principle

Electrical energy is sourced from the electricity or generator by means of filling (Charger) which serves to convert alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC) in accordance with the needs recharging of batteries via two wires are positives and negatives to charge the battery. Batteries consist of 3 units, 12 Volt, 200 Ah installed in series in which the terminal positf battery 1 is connected to the negative terminal of the battery 2 and the positive terminal of the battery 2 is connected to the negative terminal of the battery 3 while the negative terminal of the battery 1 and the positive terminal of the battery 3 obtained output 36 Volt, 200 Ah.


After the battery is full, the electricity stored in the battery can be used to rotate the motor through a solenoid which has 2 terminals that function connect and disconnect where the positive terminal of the battery mounted on one terminal at solenoide connected to the speed control, which solenoide is controlled by two limiting switch mounted on the gas and brake systems are only able to function after the ignition is turned on.

Electric car consists of three main sub-systems:

 Electric motor drive system – car controllers, converters power electronics, electric motors and transmissions;

 The battery system – battery, battery management system and charging unit;

 Auxiliary systems – heating / cooling, the pump electronics and other electronic helpers

Input gained control of the accelerator and brake pedal. This controller provides the appropriate signal converter to power electronics that regulate the flow of power between the electric motor and batteries. Motor also plays the role of a generator, which converts the brAccung energy into electrons and charge the battery. Energy management unit, in cooperation with car controllers, control brAccung energy regeneration and recovery. The electric motor produces high torque of the state of the car stopped. This results in a very good performance. Acceleration and power electric cars far beyond the internal combustion engine cars.

To adjust the size of the motor used rotation speed control which has 4 main terminals marked each terminal + Bat, Bat -, A2, M -, and three terminals for input from the pot or inductive. Positive through the solenoid wires connected to the terminal + Bat on speed control.

The control input in the form of analog signals from the pot and also inductive trhole sensor mounted on the mechanism of gas, so that the vehicle can move forward, reverse and neutral use mechanical switch back and forth SM3 (mechanical switch back and forth) are named each terminal a1, a2 , b, c d1, d2 terminal C is connected to the A2 terminal speed control, through the A2 terminal on the motor. Terminal M on speed control is directly connected to the A1 drive motor. For terminal B and D on the SM3 has two poles which functioned to flip the current direction reversal input terminals S1 and S2 on the motor.